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نهال بلوبری Blue berry

نهال بلوبری Blue berry

معرفی و تکثیر نهال بلوبری Blue berry 

معرفی میوه بلو بری:
بلو بری با نام انگلیسی Blue berry و نام علمی Vaccinium sp. از خانواده  Ericaceae ، گیاهی بلند قد و کوتاه قد بوده و میوه های آن مانند گیلاس است و رنگ آن نیز آبی روشن میباشد که با افزایش سن به سورمه ای تبدیل می شود به همین دلیل بلو بری نامیده می شوند. این میوه ها در مرداد ماه می رسند. گلهای این گیاه زنگوله ای و بیشتر به رنگ سفید یافت شده که البته رنگ صورتی روشن هم دیده می شود که در اوایل بهار شکوفه میدهند. برگهای آن در تابستان سبز براق است و در پاییز به رنگ قرمز تبدیل می شود و ساقه های آن نیز قرمز می شوند این تغییرات رنگ جالب و همچنین حالت میوه آن، نمای زیبایی را از این درخت ایجاد کرده است.

تکثیر:
این گیاه به ۳ روش تکثیر می یابد:

کشت با بذر: در این روش برای جدا کردن بذرها از میوه، بهتر است اول میوه را آرام له کرد بعد چند دقیقه در آب خیساند تا بذور آسانتر از میوه جدا شوند. البته قبل از همه اینها باید میوه ها را ۳ ماه در دمای ۱تا۵ درجه سانتیگراد نگه داشت تا بذور کمی سرمادهی شوند و بعد بذرها را از میوه جدا کرد. سپس در اوایل زمستان بذور در خزانه کشت می شوند و به دور از نور مستقیم خورشید قرار می دهند. وقتی که گیاه حاصله از جوانه زنی بذر کمی رشد کردن، آن را به زمین اصلی انتقال می دهند.
قلمه زدن: قلمه زدن در انتهای زمستان یا اوایل بهار که گیاه هنوز خواب است صورت می گیرد. در این روش، از ساقه های یکساله بدون گل استفاده می شود که فقط جوانه برگ دارند چون جوانه برگ به ریشه زایی کمک می کند. بهتر است کمی پایین قلمه را زخمی کرد تا به ریشه زایی آن کمک شود. قلمه ها در خزانه به دور از نور مستقیم نگهداری می شود و بعد در زمان مناسب به زمین اصلی انتقال می یابد.
کشت با پا جوش: در این روش در اواخر زمستان تا اوایل بهار ، پاجوش ها را از کنار پایه مادری جدا می کنند. باید توجه داشت که از پاجوشهای سال اول و دوم نباید استفاده کرد چون در این مدت پاجوشها باید به خوبی رشد کنند. در طول این دو سال بهتر است پاجوشها را سرزنی کرد تا زیاد ارتفاع نگیرد و چون سیستم ریشه پاجوشها ضعیف است، با این سرزنی سیستم ریشه آن گسترده می شود.
آبیاری:
این گیاه به آبیاری مستمر و منظم نیاز دارد. چون ریشه های آن سطحی است بنابراین خشک شدن سطح خاک و تنش خفیف خشکی ، به گیاه آسیب می زند البته باید توجه داشت که غرقاب شدن خاک هم به آن آسیب می زند و باعث پوسیدگی طوقه می شود.

خاک:
بلوبری به خاک نسبتا سبک با زهکش مناسب نیاز دارد و۵ =PH برای رشد آن مناسب است به همین دلیل نمی شود در هر منطقه ای کشت کرد مگر اینکه خاک آن ایناسیدیته را داشته باشد.

نور:

این گیاه به نور مستقیم نیاز دارد. کم بودن نور باعث رنگ پریدگی برگها، افزایش طول ساقه و باریک شدن آن، کاهش گلدهی و تولید می شود. از طرفی در روزهای گرم سال، نور مستقیم و شدید باعث سوختگی برگها و ریزش گلها می شود پس در این روزها، بهتر است گیاه در بعد از ظهر در سایه قرار گیرد.

دما:

این گیاه بومی مناطق سردسیر است و برای گلدهی نیاز به سرمادهی و بهاره شدن دارند. حالا چون گونه های مختلف تحمل سرمایی متفاوتی دارند پس باید در زمان کاشت توجه داشت که گونه مورد نظر در چه دمایی باید قرار گیرد. به طور کلی این گیاه به یخبندان مقاومت دارد.

مراقبتها:

در زمانی که گیاه در سال اول و دوم رشد به سر می برد، بهتر است قبل از اینکه گلها به میوه تبدیل شوند، گلها را از شاخه جدا کرد تا گیاه به اندازه کافی رشد کند و اسقرار خوبی پیدا کند.

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